The Anatomy of the 14 Pelvic Ground Muscle groups 

Pelvic flooring well being, intercourse, and urinary incontinence will be awkward topics to speak about. With out open communication, these topics turn out to be taboo, making it simpler for myths and disinformation to be handed alongside. Top-of-the-line methods to empower ourselves to have higher pelvic flooring well being is to have a radical understanding of what the pelvic flooring is and its many features. 

What’s the pelvic flooring? 

We frequently discuss in regards to the pelvic flooring as whether it is merely a large hammock of 1 muscle that helps our bladder, vagina, and different inner organs however it might shock you to study that the pelvic flooring is definitely made up of 14 totally different muscle tissues, in addition to fasciae, organized in 5 distinct layers. The muscle tissues and fasciae every have a singular perform associated to pelvic flooring well being. 


Fascia is the connective tissue surrounding muscle tissues and organs and helps to stabilize them. One other essential position that fasciae play in pelvic flooring well being is by appearing as a powerful but versatile casing for the delicate nerves and blood vessels that go via and between the entire muscle tissues within the pelvic flooring.

The casing of fascia surrounding the blood vessels, nerves, and muscle tissues works to scale back the inner friction of the muscle tissues. 

Whereas the energy and elasticity of the fasciae don’t impression the energy and adaptability of the muscle tissues they defend, it is very important know that the energy of the muscle tissues straight impacts the fasciae. A fascia can solely be as robust because the muscle it’s hooked up to. 

The excellent news is that just about the entire muscle tissues that make up the pelvic flooring are skeletal muscle tissues which suggests they are often managed voluntarily with follow. Performing pelvic flooring workout routines correctly and constantly will lead to stronger muscle tissues in your pelvic flooring. 

The 5 Layers of the pelvic flooring 

Layer 1: The Urogenital Diaphragm 

The urogenital diaphragm is the outermost layer of the pelvic flooring and incorporates 5 distinct muscle tissues:

  • Exterior anal sphincter 
  • Compressor urethra 
  • Ischiocavernosus muscle 
  • Bulbospongiosus muscle 
  • Superficial transverse perineal muscle 

The exterior anal sphincter voluntarily relaxes and contracts the rectum to manage bowel actions and the compressor urethra is without doubt one of the 3 exterior urethral sphincters. The 2 ends of the compressor urethra are hooked up to the left and proper sides of the pelvic bone and type an arch over the urethra. 

If you contract the compressor urethra, the urethra is pulled backward towards the vagina to cease the movement of urine. 

Urogenital triangle 

The remaining three muscle tissues of the urogenital diaphragm type what is named the urogenital triangle. Think about the higher level of the triangle positioned on the clitoris and the bottom of the triangle positioned on the perineum, the house between the vagina and anus.

The ischiocavernosus muscle acts as the 2 sides of the triangle, the superficial transverse perineal muscle acts as the bottom of the triangle, and the bulbospongiosus muscle tissues are like a pair of two parentheses contained in the triangle which sit between the perineum and the clitoris. 

The ischiocavernosus muscle helps to keep up clitoral erection contracts the vagina throughout orgasms. Clitoral erection is the swelling of the clitoris throughout sexual arousal.

The bulbospongiosus muscle within the heart of the triangle additionally assists in clitoral erection and it strengthens the opening of the vagina. The superficial transverse perineal muscle stabilizes the perineum and helps the vagina. 

It is extremely widespread for girls to mistakenly use the urogenital muscle tissues when doing kegel workout routines. Despite the fact that contracting the compressor urethra and the muscle tissues of the urogenital triangle will cease the movement of urine, contracting these muscle tissues is NOT how a correct Kegel train is carried out.

These muscle tissues are nearer to the skin of the physique than every other pelvic flooring muscle tissues however it’s the deeper muscle tissues of the pelvic flooring that do the majority of the work in defending towards prolapse and supporting the bladder and vagina. 

Layer 2: Deep Transverse Perineal Muscle Layer 

The second layer of the pelvic flooring has simply two muscle tissues: 

  • Deep transverse perineal muscle 
  • Urethrovaginal sphincter 

The deep transverse perineal muscle runs horizontally from the left and proper sides of the pelvic bone arch and extends from in entrance of the urethra to the perineum. The deep and superficial transverse perineal muscle tissues are separated by a set of dense, robust fasciae known as the perineal membrane.

Along with offering assist for the pelvic flooring, the deep transverse perineal muscle additionally helps to expel the final drops of urine from the urethra. Having a weak deep transverse perineal muscle may result in urinary tract infections if the entire urine can’t be pushed out of the urethra by this muscle. 

The opposite muscle within the second layer of the pelvic flooring is the urethrovaginal sphincter. The urethrovaginal sphincter is the second exterior urethral sphincter and it wraps round each the urethra and vagina. Contracting this muscle results in a contraction of each the urethra and vagina.

Nonetheless, this muscle can be NOT the muscle that needs to be voluntarily contracted when doing a correct kegel train.

Layer 3: Pelvic Diaphragm 

The pelvic diaphragm is the star of the present in the case of pelvic flooring well being. The pelvic diaphragm is the third deepest layer of the pelvic flooring which places it on the very heart of all the opposite muscle tissues. At any time when somebody talks in regards to the pelvic flooring generally, they’re in all probability speaking about these 5 muscle tissues: 

  • Pubococcygeus muscle
  • Pubovaginalis muscle 
  • Puborectalis muscle 
  • Iliococcygeus muscle 
  • Ischiococcygeus muscle 

Levator Ani 

These muscle tissues (besides the ischiococcygeus muscle) type what is named the levator ani. The levator ani is the central hub of pelvic flooring well being because the muscle tissues of the levator ani do the lion’s share of supporting our inner organs. 

The pubococcygeus (PC) muscle is the muscle that runs the present in pelvic flooring well being. The PC muscle extends from the pubic bone to the tailbone and helps the urethra, vagina, and rectum along with offering rhythmic contractions throughout orgasm.

A correct kegel train means a full contraction and rest of the PC muscle. The PC muscle acts because the “queen bee” of the pelvic flooring so when the PC muscle contracts, all the opposite muscle tissues and sphincters observe alongside. 

To contract the PC muscle and carry out a kegel correctly, think about attempting to carry in a fart however with out contracting any of the glutes or stomach muscle tissues. This could result in a sense of the perineum being pushed inward and upward and stress-free the PC muscle ought to really feel like a slight reducing of your pelvic flooring.

This contraction may even result in stopping the movement of urine nevertheless it makes use of the entire muscle tissues of the pelvic flooring not like contracting solely the superficial, outer muscle tissues of the urogenital diaphragm. 

The pubovaginalis muscle is a horseshoe-shaped muscle that wraps across the again of the vagina close to the uterus and the entrance ends of the muscle are hooked up to the pubic bone on the entrance of the physique. This muscle’s job is to behave as a sling to assist the vagina and uterus. 

The puborectalis muscle is positioned in the identical approach because the pubovaginalis muscle besides it extends behind the highest of the rectum. The puborectalis muscle helps with the voluntary management of bowel actions by supporting and constricting the anal canal.

This muscle relaxes in a squatting place which might make bowel actions simpler and extra comfy. 

The iliococcygeus muscle has left and proper components that stretch from the sacrum, the bottom part of the backbone, and are hooked up to the edges of the pelvic bone. This muscle surrounds the pubovaginalis and puborectalis muscle tissues and assists them in pulling the vagina and rectum in direction of the pubic bone and supporting the pelvic organs. 

The ultimate muscle of the pelvic diaphragm is the ischiococcygeus muscle. Whereas this muscle is technically not a part of the levator ani, the ischiococcygeus muscle pulls the coccyx, or tailbone, ahead and stabilizes the sacroiliac joint which is the joint between your pelvis and your backbone. It additionally performs a necessary position in offering the right quantity of pressure to the pelvic flooring.

With out the right quantity of pressure within the muscle tissues of the pelvic flooring, assist for the inner organs will lower which may contribute to prolapse of the inner organs. 

Layer 4: Easy Muscle Diaphragm 

The sleek muscle diaphragm is comprised of two muscle tissues:

  • Inside urethral sphincter 
  • Exterior urethral sphincter 

The inner urethral sphincter is positioned on the within of the urethral tube the place the bladder meets the highest of the urethra. This muscle is answerable for protecting urine contained in the bladder till it’s time to use the toilet.

Not like the opposite muscle tissues within the pelvic flooring that are skeletal muscle tissues and will be contracted voluntarily, the inner urethral sphincter is a clean muscle and can’t be managed voluntarily or skilled with pelvic flooring workout routines. Which means it’s all the extra necessary to strengthen the voluntary muscle tissues of the pelvic flooring. 

The exterior urethral sphincter is the third and last exterior urethral sphincter. This muscle wraps solely across the urethra and attaches to the pelvic bone. This muscle is voluntarily relaxed to expel urine when utilizing the toilet and it contracts to forestall urine leakage.

A robust pelvic flooring as an entire results in stronger exterior urethral sphincters that are necessary for controlling urinary incontinence. 

Layer 5: Endopelvic Fascial Diaphragm 

The endopelvic fascial diaphragm is the deepest of the 5 layers of the pelvic flooring. This method of connective tissue has additionally been known as the higher pelvic fascial flooring and it covers the levator ani muscle tissues, surrounds the pelvic organs such because the bladder, urethra, uterus, and ovaries, and suspends them from the pelvis. 

Extreme stretching or tears within the fascia results in a lack of assist for the pelvic organs and will result in prolapse. The correct strengthening and contraction of the muscle tissues within the different layers of the pelvic flooring helps to counteract overstretching of the fascia. 

As you possibly can see, every of the 14 muscle tissues of the pelvic flooring has a job to do and each muscle is significant to the general well being of our pelvic flooring. Because the majority of those muscle tissues will be contracted voluntarily, this provides us practically full management of our pelvic flooring well being regardless that the pelvic flooring muscle tissues should not totally seen to us.

The muscle tissues within the pelvic flooring should not not like the opposite muscle tissues in our physique that we use for train so you possibly can see nice enhancements with urinary incontinence in addition to your intercourse life via correct train and progressive resistance coaching of the pelvic muscle tissues.

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